See also Attitudes to Slavery: Texts and Sources
AFRICAN ATTITUDES TO SLAVERY
Akosua AdomaPerbi, A History of Indigenous Slavery in Ghana from the 15th to the 19thCentury (ISBN 9988-550-32-4), Sub-Saharan Publishers, P O Box 358, Accra,Ghana.
- Manning, Patrick, Slavery and African Life, Cambridge, 1990
- Chapter 5: The economics and morality of slave supply.
86 Why did Africans supply slaves for sale, either on domestic or intercontinental markets? . . . .I will discuss the limits of African knowledge, the constraints of social institutions, the pressures of economic logic and the dilemmas of African moral judgment.
87 Africans . . . did not then accept the notion of a common African identity . . . there existed no possible realistic basis for . . . a vision of African unity in the early days of the slave trade.
88 the only principles on which Africans opposed slavery were narrow self-interest of a family, ethnic group, or state.
91 the captive was desocialized, depersonalized, degendered and decivilized upon capture. . . He or she was held within a family group, but had no rights: slaves became and remained the other.
92 Trade in slaves . . . required the support and protection of political authorities. . . . in Asante . . ., the kings exercised rights and responsibilities over all slaves, but they did not own all the slaves within their realms.
100 On the one hand the slave trade served the interests of an elite. The slave-trading elite grasped the best cloths and liquor, the most prestigious luxury goods, and most of the firearms. . . . On the other hand, the slave trade involved all levels of society.
101 African complicity in the slave trade systematically reinforced the primacy of narrow self-interest and of short-term economic calculations.
102 . . . slave raiders, slave merchants, and slave owners devised ways to distance themselves from the fact that they were dealing in bodies for cash. . . . it is impossible to explain African slavery without emphasis on the role of money.
107 enslavement can be seen as a disease which, once launched on its course, might continue to spread even after the prices of slaves had declined to the point where it became unprofitable.
109 In the wake of imperialistic condemnation of slavery and of African life generally, the memory of African sacrifice to the evolving Atlantic economy was lost. That memory was a casualty of colonization. It was lost not only to the European colonizers and to inhabitants of the New World, but to many of the colonized in Africa.
Chapter 6: Patterns of Slave Life
124 . . . slavery was corruption: it involved theft, bribery, and exercise of brute force as well as ruses. Slavery may thus be seen as one source of precolonial origins for modern corruption. The whole story of corruption involves weaving together flaws inherent in African society, the influence of the slave trade, the influence of colonial rule, and the pressures of the mid-twentieth century.
OTHER REFERENCESAustin,Gareth, Human Pawning in Asante, 1800-1920, Markets and Coercion, Gender andCocoa, (in Toyin, Fabola and Lovejoy, Paul E., Pawnship in Africa, WestvillePress)
Fage, J.D., Slavery and the Slave Trade in the Context of West African History, Jour AfrHist X 3 1969 393-404Fynn, J.K.,Asante and Its Neighbours, 1700-1807, Longman 1971
Fynn, J.K.,Oral Traditions of Fante States No. 4 Edina (Elmina)Fynn, J.K.,The Reign and Times of Kusi Obodum 1750-64 Trans Hist Soc of Ghana
Fynn, J.K.,The Structure of Greater Asante - Another View JHSG XV(1) 1974Hutton,William, A Voyage to Africa, London 1821
Klein, A.Norman, West African Unfree Labor Before and After the Rise of the AtlanticSlave TradeKlein, A.,The Two Asantes: Competing Interpretations of Slavery in Akan-Asante Culture andSociety
Lovejoy,Paul (ed), The Ideology of Slavery in Africa, Beverly Hills 1981Lovejoy,Paul, African Transformation in Slavery, A history of slavery in Africa CUP 1983
Metcalf, G A, Microcosm of why Africans sold slaves: Akan, consumption patternsin the 1770s. Jour Afr. History Vol 28 no 3 1987 pp 377-394
Miers,Suzanne and Igor Kopytoff (eds), Slavery in Africa, Madison Wisconsin 1977
Ogot,Heinemann and J E Inikori, Africa in World History: the export slave trade fromAfrica and the emergence of the Atlantic economic order
Perbi, Akosua Adoma, A History of IndigenousSlavery in Ghana from the 15th to the 19th Century, Sub-SaharanPublishers, P O Box 358, Accra, Ghana. 2004 ISBN 9988-550-32-4Reynolds,Edward, Stand the Storm, A History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, Allison andBusby, 1985
Reynolds,Edward, Trade and Economic Changes in the Gold Coast 1807-1874, Longmans, 1974Robertson,Claire C., and Martin A Klein, Women and Slavery in Africa Univ. ofWinsconsin Press 1983
Rodney,Walter A, History of the Upper Guinea Coast, OUP 1970Rodney,Walter, Gold and Slaves on the Gold Coast Trans Hist Soc Gha vol 10 1969
Singleton,Theresa A, The Slave Trade Remembered On The Former Gold And Slave Coasts,Slavery & Abolition 1999 20(1) 150-169Uzoigwe, GN, The Slave Trade and African Societies Tr Hist Soc Gh Vol XIV no 22 Dec 73 pp187-212