See also Attitudes to Slavery: Texts and Sources


Christaller, Rev. J. G, Dictionary of theAsante and Fante Language called Tshi (Twi), Second Edition, Basel, 1933

Abŭro-kyíri, - the white manís country, Europe and America respectively. . .

Abŭro-kyírinipa Ėa man who deserves to be sent to Abŭro-kyíri.


Austin,Gareth, Human Pawning in Asante, 1800-1920, Markets and Coercion, Gender andCocoa, (in Falola, Toyin  and Lovejoy, Paul E., Pawnship in Africa,Westville Press)

Klein,A., The Two Asantes: Competing Interpretations of Slavery in Akan-Asante Cultureand Society

Klein, A.Norman, West African Unfree Labor Before and After the Rise of the AtlanticSlave Trade

Perbi, Akosua Adoma, A History of IndigenousSlavery in Ghana from the  15th to the 19th Century,  Sub-SaharanPublishers, P O Box 358, Accra, Ghana. 2004 ISBN 9988-550-32-4

Robertson,Claire C., and Martin A Klein,  Women and Slavery in Africa Univ. ofWinsconsin Press 1983

Singleton,Theresa A , The Slave Trade Remembered On The Former Gold And Slave Coasts,Slavery & Abolition 1999 20(1) 150-169