See also Texts and Sources


The third section of Ama describing the Middle Passage is entitled The Love of Liberty, from the name of the slave ship that conveys Ama across the Atlantic. The references and texts relate principally to aspects of the Middle Passage. Tombaand Jihad refer to the sub-plot in chapter 23.

This section has links to
Tombacharacter in "Ama"
JihadThe Jihad in the Futa Djalon
Narratives written by slaves
Resistanceslave resistance on board ship
Capitalism and the role of slavery in its growth
Criticism and defence of the slave trade
Middle Passage descriptions of the journey
Ships technical information on ships in the slave trade


This photograph is reproduced with the permission of the photographer Ms. Robin Harris and the owner of the shackles, Ms. Janice L. Frierson. The tag on the key is engraved : T. H. Porter Dealer in Slaves. The back of the tag bears the date 1822 and the letters HC. The shackles and the key are engraved with the number 673.

They love liberty; go to war with their neighbours because they choose to become republicans, and insist upon the right of enslaving the negroes.

Robert Southey, 1807 (quoted by Roy Porter in English Society in the Eighteenth Century, Penguin, 1982)

Curtin,Philip D. The Atlantic slave trade; a census. Madison, University of WisconsinPress, 1969.
Mannix,Daniel Pratt. Black cargoes; a history of the Atlantic slave trade, 1518-1865.New York, Viking Press [1962].
Bruce L. Mouser, ed. A Slaving Voyage to Africa and Jamaica: The Log of the Sandown, 1793-1794. Bloomington and Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 2002
Northrup, David. The Atlantic slave trade. Problems in world history. Lexington, Mass.,D.C. Heath, c1994.
Rawley,James A. The transatlantic slave trade: a history. 1st ed. New York, Norton,c1981.
Reynolds,Edward. Stand the storm: a history of the Atlantic slave trade. London; NewYork, Allison & Busby, distributed in the US by Schocken Books, 1985.
Universityof Edinburgh. Centre of African Studies. The transatlantic slave trade from WestAfrica; [papers and discussion reports contributed to a seminar held June4th-5th 1965. Edinburgh, 1965].